Prevalence is defined as the percentage of the population that smokes every day, adjusted for age.  For organizers of the Expo, there was also the issue of hypocrisy if they did not deal with China's smoking problem as part of their "Healthy Expo. No studies recorded e-cigarette use. Depending on the study, estimates indicate that exposure to passive smoke in China varies from 34.1% to 72.4% (11 - 15). Beijing’s smoking control efforts mark a big step forward for China in this regard. It has been a major health problem for many decades. [Photo:163.com] The number of daily smokers around the world has hit 1 billion in 2015, most from China, India, the U.S. and Russia, says a new report. Doctors who smoked were less likely to believe that smoking has a harmful effect on health compared to nonsmokers. , High tobacco use among physicians may be attributed to several factors. Prevalence of current tobacco use, males (% of male adults) from The World Bank: Data Tobacco smoking is one of the world’s largest health problems.  With an explicitly stated objective of "building smoke-free environments for the sake of enjoying healthy life", the report has received strong support and praise from the Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, a U.S. health advocacy group based in Washington, D.C.. The meta-analysis by Emami et al. However, the World Health Organization has a new study claiming that smoking is on the rise again, but this time in d…  While many interviewers found second-hand smoke itself toxic and damaging to citizen's health, a main reason behind popular support for the smoking ban relates to the citizen's concern for Shanghai's image. About 25 percent said they bought individual cigarettes rather than whole packs.  The Ministry's "Decision" formally requests local governmental units to "set up multi-agency FCTC Implementation Leading Small Groups" to assist with regional strategies of enforcement, with the explicit goal that: "by the year 2010, all health administration offices, both military and non-military, and at least 50% of all medical and health institutions should become smoke-free units, so that the goal of a total smoking ban in all health administration offices and medical and health institutions can be fulfilled by 2011. There are more than 300 million smokers in China. In order to maintain a robust, sustainable effort in tobacco control, China will particularly need to focus upon the role of public health education in smoking prevention and health promotion. It may be argued that as responsible and informed adults, Chinese physicians should be given the choice of whether or not to smoke. About 70 percent of Chinese women are suffering from secondhand smoking, Wei said. 12 – 14 Approximately one-third to one-half of current male smokers in China are likely to have died from smoking-related diseases by 2030 if they do not quit. Prior to enacting the nationwide smoking ban, the Ministry of Health had already maintained active involvement in decrying the negative effects of smoking and striving toward decreased prevalence of tobacco use. They found that among 13 studies in China with nearly 6,000 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, the rate of smokers ranged from 1.4% to 12.6%. Nearly one in three smokers in the world is Chinese. It’s so bad that in 2004, a survey was conducted that found 42% of Chinese male surgeons had reported smoking in front of their patients. That explains why China is responsible for smoking 40% of all cigarettes in the world. However, very few smokers (5%) in the ITC China Survey reported thinking about price as a reason to quit smoking—a sign that prices are too low. China Daily. But prevalence has plateaued, remaining nearly unchanged since 2006. The percentage of people who smoke has fallen in most countries since 1990, but the total numbers of smokers and smoking deaths have risen, a study says. Smoke-free list extends to healthcare facilities. Some have suggested that so long as a cigarette does not interfere with a physician's ability to diagnose and treat patients, smoking should be permitted among health care practitioners. Adult Smoking (15+ Y.O.) , As of 2014, two thirds of Chinese men smoked. What the researchers discovered about risk of death from COVID-19 among smokers is that in the minimally adjusted model, which only accounted for age and sex, smokers and former smokers were at 25 percent and 80 percent, respectively, higher risk of dying from COVID-19 compared to nonsmokers. About 50 percent of men in China smoke, compared to only 2% of women. On May 29, 2007, the Ministry released a report (2007 年中国控制吸烟报告—The 2007 China Smoking Control Report) detailing alarming levels of secondhand smoke exposure (affecting over 540 million Chinese citizens), recommendations for legislation to reduce harm from secondhand smoke, and the feasibility of implementing public smoking bans based upon polling data. [Photo:163.com] The number of daily smokers around the world has hit 1 billion in 2015, most from China, India, the U.S. and Russia, says a new report. An economic motivation against physician smoking may be the societal loss that is caused by tobacco use. Public health experts agree that it will be difficult to enforce a strict ban with the large number of smokers present in Shanghai.. The new ban will be run as a pilot project under the joint auspices of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease(UNION). The rates are age-standardized. On the other hand, Ethiopia is in the last place with only 4.7% of its population being nicotine addicts. By contrast, smoking rates among women in China have dropped sharply; about 10 percent … Because cigarettes were introduced into China before 1900, Hermalin and Lowry found that for men, each five-year group they studied had reached a similar high peak of smoking prevalence, ranging from 65 percent to 75 percent. The new daily average [after the extended smoking ban] was less than half of what was reported in the first four months of this year, when the city's firefighters had to put out 325 fires caused by cigarette butts, or 2.7 per day.". There are as many as 350 million smokers in China, which is approximately 30 percent of the smokers worldwide. The number of smokers in Italy is on the rise, the Higher Health Institute (ISS) said on World No Tobacco Day Thursday. An article published in 2009 interviewed a source who claimed that 60% of Chinese male doctors were smokers, a percentage higher than any other country's doctors in the world. In practice, it is often the case that only some government offices, schools, museums, some hospitals, and sports venues effectively function as smoke-free areas. Shanghai residents point out that despite the fact many shopping malls and all subways and subway stations actually already banned smoking prior to this law, there is low compliance and people often smoke directly in front of NO SMOKING signs.  China also remains one of the three leading countries (along with India and the United States) in total number of female smokers, although these three countries accounted for only 27.3% of the world's female smokers, indicating that the tobacco epidemic is less geographically concentrated for women than for men.. , Others may argue that since physicians influence the well-being of the general population, their high smoking rates serve as an unhealthy role model to Chinese citizens. In addition to passing the smoking ban, Shanghai legislators have designed a website "Smoke Free Shanghai"  to raise anti-smoking awareness. 8-32 Two meta-analyses have been published which pooled the prevalence of smokers in hospitalized patients across studies based in China. Prevalence of smoking is the percentage of men and women ages 15 and over who currently smoke any tobacco product on a daily or non-daily basis. As a response to FCTC recommendations for reduction of access and supply-side tobacco regulation, the Ministry of Health is now targeting farmers to give up tobacco plantation and trying to “convince them that the tobacco industry can be replaced by other industries that are more healthy, sustainable and profitable.”, Another potential obstacle is the Chinese tobacco industry's lack of complete compliance with nationally defined policies regarding the correct presentation of warning labels on cigarette packages, which must be readily visible and cover at least 30% of the visible area of the packaging. Smoking in China is prevalent, as the People's Republic of China is the world's largest consumer and producer of tobacco: there are 350 million Chinese smokers, and China produces 42% of the world's cigarettes. A campaign by China’s government to get its people to butt out has been largely successful with one glaring exception: The number of women that are lighting up has tripled in recent years. “In China, mortality rates were higher in men than women. Their backgrounds in science and medicine enable them to know more about the effects of smoking on the body compared to the general public, so a decision they make about tobacco may be more educated. ", Given the complex and multifaceted nature of political agendas in China, governmental public-health related interests often clash with economic interests. According to Li Zhongyang, the deputy head of the Shanghai Health Promotion Committee, the smoking ban was enacted to protect citizens' health and also promote Shanghai's image as a cosmopolitan city. 2%. Tobacco control campaigns are becoming more serious in China, but massive tax revenues from state-owned tobacco companies and cultural normalization stand in the way. The percentage of Beijing smokers above 15 years old has descended 6.5 percent in the past five years. World J Surg 2009. , Male surgeons were found to smoke more than any other specialty. Some of them even smoke boldly in hospitals or schools.” This is problematic because, regardless of whether these professionals continue to smoke out of habit, social custom, or "apparent disregard" for evidence of smoking risk, they are still expected to "behave themselves and set a good example for others in tobacco control," Li says. According to a report by the Fudan University Media and Public Opinion Research Center, 93.5% of the 509 people they interviewed supported a smoking ban at all Shanghai Expo 2010 pavilions and also felt that smoking should not be allowed in restaurants or shopping centers near the Expo area. In light of its preparations to host the 2010 World Expo, the city of Shanghai had recently heightened its anti-smoking legislation. The party-secretary smokes. And whenever I walk into the duty office, most of my colleagues are smoking. In Chinese culture, smoking is connected to masculine identity as a social activity that is practiced among men to promote feelings of acceptance and brotherhood, which explains why more Chinese male doctors smoke than females. We should do the same, at least during the Expo, since it is a cosmopolitan event. 33 analysed data for 2986 patients and found a pooled prevalence of smoking of 7.6% (3.8% -12.4%) while Farsalinos et al. But prevalence has plateaued, remaining nearly unchanged since 2006. , China remains one of the three leading countries (along with India and Indonesia) in total number of male smokers, accounted for 51.4% of the world's male smokers in 2015. , The government mentioned, upon the release of the budget in 2009, that a full ban of tobacco import and smoking is technically possible. [Wikipedia “Smoking in the People’s Republic of China”] A direct positive public health impact of the Beijing smoking ban has manifested in the arena of fire prevention. It excludes smokeless tobacco use. " Notable support also exists within the sphere of representative politics; allegedly, political advisors of the CPPCC have even gone so far as to call for smoke-free legislative sessions. Overall, 60.2 and 61.8% subjects from urban and rural areas, respectively, described themselves as passive smokers. The practice is controversial because some believe that medical professionals should serve as role models of healthy behavior to their patients, while others believe that doctors should have the right to smoke because it is a personal matter. Anyone caught smoking would first be given a warning and then face a fine of 50 to 200 yuan if they resist. CA Cancer J Clin. . In 2018, there were nearly 800,000 new cases of lung cancer diagnosed in China, and every year, over a million Chinese people die from tobacco-related diseases. China's National Health and Family Planning Commission is planning to implement a nation-wide ban on smoking in public places by the end of 2017.  China does not have laws to punish health care facilities, medical workers and health officials who violate smoking bans, and is instead relying on the Chinese media to act as a watchdog. Smoking will cause about 20% of all adult male deaths in China during the 2010s. That explains why China is responsible for smoking 40% of all cigarettes in the world. , Smoking is such a big part of being a doctor here. The percent distribution of SHS exposure of adult non-smokers in Northeast China is given in Table 2. China is the world’s largest consumer and producer of tobacco.China has about 350 million smokers and produces 42% of the all cigarettes in the world.  The China National Tobacco Corporation (中国烟草总公司 Zhōngguó Yāncǎo Zǒnggōngsī) is by sales the largest single manufacturer of tobacco products in the world and boasts a monopoly in Mainland China generating between 7 and 10% of government revenue. Current smoking has declined from 20.9% (nearly 21 of every 100 adults) in 2005 to 14.0% (14 of every 100 adults) in 2019, and the proportion of ever smokers who have quit has increased. Nightclubs give out western cigarettes free The researchers say 12% of all adult male deaths and 3% of all adult female deaths in China are now caused by smoking.  Such indeterminate enforcements of supposedly well-defined public health regulations in practice may limit the impact of de jure national smoking bans. Among smokers, the polls found that 93.5% support a total ban on smoking in all schools, 75.5% support a total ban in hospitals, and 94.3% support a total ban in all public transport. However, people continue to die and become sick needlessly, and the costs to society from tobacco use continue to mount. This measure was intended to bring much-needed revenue to local enterprise; quotas were issued by county authorities to offices under its jurisdiction, which in turn were fined if they failed to consume the demanded quota of cigarettes, or if they were found purchasing other brands of tobacco products. China loves to smoke, as these sobering statistics show. Almost 60% of male doctors in China are smokers, representing the highest percentage of smoking doctors in the world. Responding to criticism about the current legislation not being well enforced, Wang Yu, director of the China CDC explained that "This project would create strict legislation to guarantee 100-percent smoke-free public venues and workplaces and figure out a feasible and forceful working mechanism to enforce the smoking ban." In fact, Chinese physicians who smoke may be able to form closer relationships with patients because of tobacco's role in the local culture as a commodity that promotes unity and friendship. Women smoked much less. In addition to the May 20 measure, numerous provincial and city-level administrations in China have also enacted policies to control the prevalence and health impacts of smoking within the last decade.  From 2009, Projects sponsored by Bloomberg Initiative and directed by Yang Tingzhong were designed as the first program to prohibit all forms of smoking in University campuses in China. Chinese physicians have a substantially higher smoking prevalence than doctors in the United States (3.3%) or United Kingdom (6.8%). , Impact of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, Arguments in favor of physicians' choice to smoke, Arguments against physicians' choice to smoke. A decrease in cigarette smoking also happened in China, where the public smoking ban was stringently enforced with large fines attached. The Shanghai People's Congress issued the city's first smoking control law in March 2010. Gallup has tracked the prevalence of smoking in the United States for more than 60 years and, with the introduction of the Gallup World Poll, has begun to do so around the globe.  Yang Tingzhong from Zhejiang University undertook campaigns and project sponsored by Bloomberg Global Initiative to ban smoking in university campuses at a nationwide scale. More smokers are stopping by choice, the study found, but still only 9 percent did so. A 2004 study conducted among 3,500 Chinese physicians found that 23% were regular smokers. For the entire 20th century it is estimated that around 100 million people died prematurely because of smoking, most of them in rich countries. China has a relatively low social disapproval rate of smoking—according to the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC), "only 59% of smokers think that Chinese society disapproves of smoking, the fourth lowest rate of 14 ITC countries surveyed. China has set a target to reduce the smoking rate among people aged 15 and above to 20 percent by 2030, according to the "Healthy China … However, given the decreasing smoking rate in recent years mainly due to increasing tobacco tax, the government currently has no further plans to control sales of tobacco other than by adjusting taxation. They found that among 13 studies in China with nearly 6,000 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, the rate of smokers ranged from 1.4% to 12.6%. China's sky high smoking rate among men may help explain why they're more susceptible to coronavirus infection and death. Only Russia and some eastern European countries come close to this high prevalence of smoking in China. In comparison, the numbers for the male smokers were 17 percent and 37 percent respectively. There are more than 300 million smokers in China. Jiang Y, Ong M K, Tong E K, et al. "Sixty-six percent is already saturated. Tobacco use has been identified as an increasingly popular phenomenon in China, and Chinese physicians have been found to exhibit high smoking rates as well. Although China still lags behind many countries in implementing tobacco control policy, the Ministry of Health's May 20 initiative helped to establish more unified smoking controls and codify public health authority at broad administrative levels. This wide range can be explained by variations in age and sex, as well as the region, source, and definition of exposure. Alternatively, smoking cessation advice offered by a doctor who smokes may seem hypocritical to the patient trying to quit. Smoking bans in lifts, public transport, cinemas, concert halls, airport terminal and escalators had been phased in between 1982 and 1997. In 2007, Guangzhou and Jiangmen became Guangdong's first two cities for experimental enforcement of total smoking ban at some public places. In 2010, smoking caused nearly 1 million (840 000 male, 130 000 female) deaths in China. Belarus, the country that consumes the most alcohol per capita, comes third, followed by Macedonia and Albania. COVID-19 is a coronavirus outbreak that initially appeared in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, in December 2019, but it has already evolved into a pandemic spreading rapidly worldwide 1,2.As of 18 March 2020, a total number of 194909 cases of COVID-19 have been reported, including 7876 deaths, the majority of which have been reported in China (3242) and Italy (2505) 3. On October 11, 2005, China became the 78th country in the world to ratify the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), an international treaty intended to reduce tobacco-related disease and death. Smoking is a major cause of disability, premature death and loss of productivity. 0.32%  China has also resolved to ban all tobacco vending machines, as well as smoking in indoor work places, public areas, and public transportation vehicles.. France's Health Ministry has announced that the country had 1 million fewer smokers in 2017 compared to the year before. One of the hypotheses is that this was also due to smoking. % using tobacco daily: 2015. In the European nations of Germany, France, and Spain around 40% of the males are smoking - some 15% more than in the United States of America. On the other hand, Ethiopia is in the last place with only 4.7% of its population being nicotine addicts. , On February 12, 2011, State Administration of Radio, Film and Television, announced that it will ban inappropriate smoking scenes in movies and TV shows.  With an ever-increasing Chinese smoking population of over 350 million, the enactment of the May 20 initiative represents an important landmark in China's commitment to tobacco control. China gained almost 100 million smokers between 1980 and 2012, despite an overall decrease in smoking prevalence in the same period from 30.4 percent to 24.2 percent.  Various health experts, activists, and public advocacy groups regard the Chinese government's escalating efforts toward tobacco policy as "surely good news for the country's smoking control progress. Only some 30 percent of the adult males are smoking in India. We have provided a few examples below that you can copy and paste to your site: Your data export is now complete. Tobacco smoking is one of the world’s largest health problems. The same thing happened in China, where the public smoking ban was stringent enforced with large fines attached. Medical Anthropology 2008, Garfinkel L, Stellman SD.  Under the conditions of the FCTC, China is required to completely ban "promotion and sponsorship on radio, television, print media and the Internet within five years,"  as well as to prohibit tobacco companies from sponsoring international events or activities. , However, widespread apathy and tacit acceptance toward smoking policy are likely to predominate within large portions of the Chinese population. China can still do more to make the proven tobacco control tools work for its citizens’ wellbeing. Children Smoking (10–14 Y.O.) The director of our hospital smokes. Backlinks from other websites and blogs are the lifeblood of our site and are our primary source of new traffic. Furthermore, smoking can be considered a personal matter that should not be relevant to the workplace. Americans' reported smoking behaviors mirror the worldwide median.  In addition, the cultural basis of smoking in China presents a significant barrier to de facto acceptance and integration of smoking control policies. Gallup has tracked the prevalence of smoking in the United States for more than 60 years and, with the introduction of the Gallup World Poll, has begun to do so around the globe. Background China consumes about 40% of the world's cigarettes, predominantly by men, following a large increase in recent decades. Some 70.6% of non-smokers support some type of smoking ban in bars and restaurants.. In light of the passage of national tobacco initiatives and international publicity for the 2008 Summer Olympics, the Beijing city government extended a public smoking ban on May 1, 2008 to include sports venues and all indoor areas of government offices, transport stations, schools and hospitals.  Wu Yiqun, vice executive director with the Beijing-based Thinktank Research Center for Health Development, criticized China's tobacco industry supervisory administration for "[failing] to oversee Chinese tobacco producers" in this aspect. They have a slightly higher rate than Japanese physicians (20.2%) and Japanese physicians have a smaller gender discrepancy with 27% male and 7% of female doctors smoking. , Yang Gonghuan, deputy director of the National Center of Disease Control of China, said that progress on tobacco control is not moving quickly because the government derives large tax revenues from tobacco sales, and the industry employs a large workforce. However, 27 observational studies found that smokers constituted 1.4-18.5% of hospitalized adults.  The public places for smoking ban included restaurants, entertainment outlets, schools, supermarkets, and governmental offices. Some 23.3% or 12.2 million Italians now smoke, 0.4% up …  In light of the FCTC, concerns about international image, and strong support from both citizens and domestic health authorities, the Chinese government has become increasingly involved in tobacco prevention and tobacco-related health promotion programs. Smoking among Doctors: Governmentality, Embodiment, and the Diversion of Blame in Contemporary China. There was a significant gender difference, with 41% of male physicians reporting to be smokers but only 1% of female physicians. The Chinese Association on Tobacco Control (中国控制吸烟协会 Zhōngguó kòngzhì xīyān xiéhuì) is engaged in tobacco control by members of the voluntary sector, including academic, social and mass organizations, as strong enforcement of existing tobacco control laws is not supported by the Chinese Government.  Another survey done by public health experts from Fudan University which involved 800 hotel guests and around 4,000 patrons and employees of restaurants, shops and entertainment venues in Shanghai found that about 73 percent of the hotel guests said Shanghai should adopt a smoking ban in public areas, 84 percent of restaurant guests reported exposure to second-hand smoke, and 74 percent of them were annoyed by the fumes and support smoking controls. By 2050, the researchers expect this number could rise to 8,000 a day - some three million people a year.  One most basic concern Shanghai residents have regarding the ban is the lack of clarity regarding who will do the fining and who will report the offenses. In 2009, the authorities of Gongan County attempted to increase consumption of locally produced cigarettes, by demanding that local officials smoke up to 23,000 packs of Hubei-branded cigarettes per year. 9 – 11 In China, the health risks of smoking appear to be as high as in Western countries, where the smoking epidemic started earlier. Physicians who smoke may also have a bias that prevents them from giving accurate information regarding the negative health effects of tobacco to patients. After the announcement was done, the ban was effective immediately.. The latest amendment enlarges the smoking ban to include indoor workplaces, most public places including restaurants, Internet cafés, public lavatories, beaches and most public parks. Hangzhou's people's congress had approved to ban smoking in public and working places in the beginning of 2010; smoking may be prohibited in some places and violators may be fined up to 3000 yuan. Kohrman, Matthew.  A study conducted among 800 Chinese male surgeons in 2004 found that 45.2% were smokers and 42.5% had smoked in front of their patients. ", This page was last edited on 3 December 2020, at 17:22. , Furthermore, the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project brings up the following persistent smoking issues in its 2009 report focused on China:.  Fewer smokers also believed that physicians should serve as role models for their patients and that indoor smoking in hospitals should be prohibited. However, by March 2010, the Guangzhou Municipal People's Congress prepared to lift the smoking ban in work places, including offices, conference rooms and auditoriums. Everywhere in the developed world, as the bans on cigarette smoking in public have been increasingly made into law, tobacco consumption has went into decline. Furthermore, physicians in particular may resort to tobacco as a coping mechanism to deal with the day-to-day stress that is associated with long work hours and difficult patient interactions. There is no legal age limit on smoking in China but it is illegal to sell cigarettes to people under 16. Prevalence of current tobacco use, males (% of male adults) from The World Bank: Data These results indicate that there has been a rapid growth of female smokers in China in recent years. The tobacco-attributed proportion is increasing in men, but low, and decreasing, in women. Thus it is prohibiting scenes of cigarette brands, people smoking at smoke-free places, minors buying and smoking cigarettes, and other smoking scenes associated with minors. Current tax regulations in Chinese tobacco control policy are limited, inconsistent, and tied to the structural intricacies of domestic ownership and control of tobacco production and distribution. The ban in shopping centres, department stores, supermarkets, banks and game arcades has been in place since July 1998. Eighty-two percent of respondents indicated their satisfaction with the implementation of the smoking ban, and 33.5 percent showed their intention to persuade smokers to stop. 371), first enacted in 1982 with several amendments subsequently. This decision was reversed after public outcry and coverage by international press. In the wake of Australia’s landmark ban on cigarette package advertising, Asian Scientist Magazine casts an eye over smoking in Asia. 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