He who has Belief[150] is the one who Thinks, therefore one must desire to understand why one Believes (Śraddhā, श्रद्दधा), Satyakama replies that he is of uncertain parentage because his mother does not know who the father is. As with the other Upanishads, the emphasis is on what lies beneath the veneer of the apprehensible world. Prashna Upanishad: Embedded in the Atharva Veda, the Prashna concerns itself with the existential nature of the human condition beginning with a discussion of how life begins and continuing to thoughts on immortality while addressing subjects such as what constitutes “life” and the nature of meditation/wisdom. [121][125], The verse 5.10.8 of the Chandogya Upanishad is notable for two assertions. Complete Brahma Sutras 390 classes (~55 mins each) Explanatory Texts. This Eternal Truth is the home, the core, the root of each living being. यो ह वै ज्येष्ठं च श्रेष्ठं च वेद ज्येष्ठश्च ह वै श्रेष्ठश्च भवति Stephen Phillips (2009), Yoga, Karma, and Rebirth: A Brief History and Philosophy, Columbia University Press. He who knows success,[113] becomes successful. The third group consists of chapters VI-VIII that deal with metaphysical questions such as the nature of reality and soul. The major thrust of the piece is on the importance of recognizing the unity of all existence and the folly of believing one’s self to be alone in the world. The text makes a distinction between higher and lower knowledge with “higher knowledge” defined as self-actualization and “lower knowledge” as any information which comes from an external source, even the Vedas. Mundak Upanishad 28 11. May we be used to spread your peace on earth. [131] [2], The text has eight Prapathakas (प्रपाठक, lectures, chapters), each with varying number of Khandas (खण्ड, volume). [147] The text states in section 7.13, that deeper than Space is Smara (स्मरो, memory) because without memory universe to man would be as if it didn't exist. [110] Each rivaling organ leaves for a year, and the body suffers but is not worse off. Kena Upanishad: Embedded in the Sama Veda, the Kena develops themes from the Kausitaki and others with a focus on epistemology and self-knowledge. University of California press, 1996. Of a truth there lived Swetaketu son of Aruṇa. [160], The Upanishad in section 8.5 and 8.6 states that the life of student (Brahmacharin, see Brahmacharya) guided by a teacher is the means to knowledge, and the process of meditation and search the means of realizing Atman. Om is the Udgitha, the symbol of life-principle in man.[25]. Om, let us drink! [39][40][41] The Chandogya Upanishad states that the reverse is true too, that people call it a-sāman when there is deficiency or worthlessness (ethics), unkindness or disrespect (human relationships), and lack of wealth (means of life, prosperity).[41][42]. Barbara Holdrege (2004), Dharma, in The Hindu World (Editors: Sushil Mittal and Gene Thursby), Routledge, 3 padas of 8 syllables containing 24 syllables in each stanza; considered a language structure of special beauty and sacredness. [139][140], The Chandogya Upanishad in volume 6.9, states that all souls are interconnected and one. PT Raju (1985), Structural Depths of Indian Thought, State University New York Press. [156][169][170], With the knowledge of the Brahman, asserts the text, one goes from darkness to perceiving a spectrum of colors and shakes off evil. Human beings could recognize in these gods the inherent nature of Brahman but, in order to have a direct experience, they were encouraged to pursue a relationship with their higher self – known as the Atman – which was the spark of the Divine each individual carried within. [31][35], Such satire is not unusual in Indian literature and scriptures, and similar emphasis for understanding over superficial recitations is found in other ancient texts, such as chapter 7.103 of the Rig Veda. This concept is summed up in the line, “Who are you?” and the response, “I am you” (1.2). The last eight chapters are long, and are called the Chandogya Upanishad. Philosophic Classics: Asian Philosophy, Volume VI, By John M. Koller - Asian Philosophies: 5th Edition. [174], The philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer admired and often quoted from Chandogya Upanishad, particularly the phrase "Tat tvam asi", which he would render in German as "Dies bist du", and equates in English to “This art thou.”[175][176] One important teaching of Chandogya Upanishad, according to Schopenhauer is that compassion sees past individuation, comprehending that each individual is merely a manifestation of the one will; you are the world as a whole. (...) Chapters VI-VII consist of vidyas of great depth and profundity". The word Veda means “knowledge” and the four Vedas are believed to contain the essential knowledge of the universe and how an individual is to live in it. [147], In its exposition of progressive meditation for Self-knowledge, the Chandogya Upanishad starts by referring to the outer worldly knowledges as name. [54] In other words, the fourth state of Brahmasamstha among men must have been known by the time this Chandogya verse was composed, but it is not certain whether a formal stage of Sannyasa life existed as a dharmic asrama at that time. This passage has been widely cited by ancient and medieval Sanskrit scholars as the fore-runner to the asrama or age-based stages of dharmic life in Hinduism. Translation 2: That which is the finest essence – this whole world has that as its soul. The purpose of life, then, was to attend to the responsibilities one had been sent to earth to fulfill by recognizing one’s duty (dharma) and performing it with right action (karma) as one worked toward self-actualization and liberation (moksha) which freed one from the cycle of rebirth and death (samsara). [66] The Sun is described as the honeycomb laden with glowing light of honey. As people who do not know the country, walk again and again over undiscovered gold that is hidden below inside the earth, thus do people live with Brahman and yet do not discover it because they do not seek to discover the true Self in that Brahman dwelling inside them. To one who sees, perceives and understands Self (Soul) as Truth, asserts the Upanishad in section 7.26, the life-principle springs from the Self, hope springs from the Self, memory springs from the Self, as does mind, thought, understanding, reflection, conviction, speech, and all outer worldly knowledges.[154][155][156]. [71] This Brahman-Atman premise is more consciously and fully developed in section 3.14 of the Chandogya Upanishad. In that way are you, Śvetaketu. This concept of selfless devotion to the deity would inspire the Bhakti (“devotion”) movement of the Middle Ages which would later be revived as the Hare Krishna Movement of the present day. [27] Then the gods revered the Udgitha as Prāṇa (vital breath, breath in the mouth, life-principle), and the demons struck it but they fell into pieces. [106], The fifth chapter of the Chandogya Upanishad opens with the declaration,[109]. This is my Soul in the innermost heart, greater than the earth, greater than the aerial space, greater than these worlds. [124][125] The path of the Devas, in after-life, is for those who live a life of knowledge or those who enter the forest life of Vanaprastha and pursue knowledge, faith and truthfulness – these do not return, and in their after-life join unto the Brahman. Deeper than Memory is Asha (आशा, hope), states section 7.14 of the Upanishad, because kindled by Hope the Memory learns and man acts. The Mundaka is another among the most popular Upanishads for its emphasis on individual effort to achieve the spiritual understanding that there is no such thing as the isolated individual once one realizes that everyone is related on the most fundamental level and all are on the exact same path. "Upanishads: Summary & Commentary." The boy asks to be able to return safely to his father, to learn the fire sacrifice of immortality and, most importantly, to know what happens after death. S Sharma and U Sharma (2005), Cultural and Religious Heritage of India: Hinduism, Motilal Banarsidass. [135] These coarse becomes waste, the medium builds the body or finest essence nourishes the mind. The Chhandogya Upanishad is one of the most prominent among the major group of philosophical and mystical texts constituting one of thethreefold foundation of India’s spiritual lore, the tripod of Indian Culture, being constituted of the Upanishads, the Brahmasutras and the Bhagavadgita. 8, No. [134], The text in volume 2, through Uddalaka, asserts that there is disagreement between people on how the universe came into existence, whether in the beginning there was a Sat (सत्, Truth, Reality, Being) without a second, or whether there was just A-sat (असत्, Nothingness, non-Being) without a second. [68] Gayatri as speech sings to everything and protects them, asserts the text.[68][69]. Gayatri Mantra; Everything is a Name; Meditation as Brahman [7], The Upanishad comprises the last eight chapters of a ten chapter Chandogya Brahmana text. But the Brahmasamstha – one who is firmly grounded in Brahman – alone achieves immortality. [121], The two paths of after-life, states the text, are Devayana – the path of the Devas (gods), and Pitryana – the path of the fathers. Anthony Warder (2009), A Course in Indian Philosophy, Motilal Banarsidass. Now that light which shines above this heaven, higher than all, higher than everything, in the highest world, beyond which there are no other worlds, that is the same light which is within man. The Katha emphasizes the importance of living in the present without worrying about past or future. Deeper than Meditation, states section 7.7 of the Upanishad, is Vijñana (विज्ञान, knowledge, understanding) because when a man Understands he continues Meditating. The Brihadaranyaka and the Chandogya Upanishad are the oldest. [27] The gods revered the Udgitha as sense of smell, but the demons cursed it and ever since one smells both good-smelling and bad-smelling, because it is afflicted with good and evil. [165] The three Self, which are false Self, asserts the text are the material body,[108] corporeal self in dreams, individual self in deep sleep, while the fourth is the true Self – the self in beyond deep sleep state that is one with others and the entire universe. The singular is informed by the collective. (4.12). In some of its opening lines it asks: What is the cause of the cosmos? He sees, thinks, understands and knows everything as his Self. Tapas (austerity, meditation) is the second, while dwelling as a Brahmacharya for education in the house of a teacher is third, [135] Uddalaka states that it is difficult to comprehend that the universe was born from nothingness, and so he asserts that there was "one Sat only, without a second" in the beginning. According to a 1998 review by Olivelle,[14] Chandogya was composed by 7th or 6th century BCE, give or take a century or so. Summary 5 2. 2, pages 292-310. Taittriya Upanishad 23 9. To reach Svarga, asserts the text, understand these doorkeepers. [25] The deities thereafter revered the Udgitha as speech, but the demons afflicted it and ever since one speaks both truth and untruth, because speech has been struck with good and evil. The volumes 3.16 and 3.17 of the Chandogya Upanishad are notable for two additional assertions. [15] The second chapter of the Brahmana is short as well and its mantras are addressed to divine beings at life rituals. In: 108 Upanishads, Chandogya Upanishad, Samaveda Tags: Print Email I-iv-1: One should meditate on the syllable Om, the Udgitha, for one sings the Udgitha beginning with Om. Vidya > the Upanishads, dating to the first chapter lists mystical meanings the.: 5th Edition, Theatre, Literature and the body is worst off, is the is... Education, arrogant of his unfulfilled superficial desires, but this is, Prasna! Essence – this whole world '' of Om is this finest essence, they change the essence, change! 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