[53], A monument to the huge human cost of some of the gigantic construction projects of the early Ming dynasty is the Yangshan Quarry (located some 15–20 km (9–12 mi) east of the walled city and Ming Xiaoling mausoleum), where a gigantic stele, cut on the orders of the Yongle Emperor, lies abandoned, just as it was left 600 years ago when it was understood it was impossible to move or complete it. New York: Putnam, 1967. p. 109, Fu Jing-hui, An Introduction of Chinese and Foreign History of War, 2003, p.109–111, Document sent by former Japanese foreign minister. [132] The Rape of Nanking is one of the most brutal acts of 20th-century genocides of world history that took place in December of 1937. The tragic Nanking Massacre was widely unknown in the West until a Chinese-American author brought the harsh reality of Japanese occupation to light. It is the capital of the Jiangsu Province in Eastern China, and a port on the Yangtze River. Nanjing was threatened to be invaded by British troops during the close of the First Opium War, which was ended by the Treaty of Nanking in 1842. In recent years, Nanjing has been developing its economy, commerce, industry, as well as city construction. The siege lasted almost three weeks, beginning on August 24. The OECD estimated the encompassing metropolitan area at the time as 11.7 million. The second and third largest minority groups were Manchu (2,311) and Zhuang (533). See Template:Administrative divisions of Taiwan instead. According to the QS Higher Education top-ranking university, Nanjing University is ranked the seventh university in China, and 122nd overall in the world as of 2019. The slogan of the 2014 Youth Olympic Games was "Share the Games, Share our Dreams". Nanjing's airport, Lukou International Airport NKG, serves both national and international flights. Its gymnasium has capacity of 13,000, and natatorium of capacity 3,000. Zun, a kind of wine vessel, was found to exist in Beiyinyangying culture of Nanjing in about 5000 years ago. The current economy of the city is basically newly developed based on the past. The name Nanjing, which means "Southern Capital", was officially designated for the city during the Ming dynasty, about six hundred years later. [7], Situated in the Yangtze River Delta region, Nanjing has a prominent place in Chinese history and culture, having served as the capital of various Chinese dynasties, kingdoms and republican governments dating from the 3rd century to 1949,[8] and has thus long been a major center of culture, education, research, politics, economy, transport networks and tourism, being the home to one of the world's largest inland ports. 南京為中國古都,在北京之前,而其位置乃在一美善之地區。其地有高山,有深水,有平原,此三種天工,鐘毓一處,在世界中之大都市誠難覓如此佳境也。而又恰居長江下游兩岸最豐富區域之中心... Nankinese, sometimes may be translated as Nanjinese, Nanjingese, Nankingese, Nanjinger, Nankiner, etc.. Almost none of them, however, are still celebrated by modern Nanjingese. The city has a number of other names, and some historical names are now used as names of districts of the city; among them there is the name Jiangning or Kiangning (江寧), whose former character Jiang (江, Yangtze) is the former part of the name Jiangsu and latter character Ning (寧, simplified form 宁; 'Peace') is the short name of Nanjing. Both of these two are comprehensive sports centers, including stadium, gymnasium, natatorium, tennis court, etc. [56][57] His short reign was described by later historians as the first reign of the so-called Southern Ming dynasty. In East China, in terms of urban population and urban area, the largest city is Shanghai, and the second largest is Nanjing. [21] The city also served as the seat of the rebel Taiping Heavenly Kingdom (1853–64) and the Japanese puppet regime of Wang Jingwei (1940–45) during the Second Sino-Japanese War. Home » History of Nanking Massacre. Nanjing High-tech Industrial Development Zone established. Smith, and Sharp have established their lines, and a number of multinationals such as Ford, IBM, Lucent, Samsung and SAP established research center there. [45] It is among the longest surviving city walls in China. Many China-based leading firms such as Huawei, ZTE and Lenovo have key R&D institutes in the city. Jiangsu Province Kun Opera is one of the best theaters for Kunqu, China's oldest stage art. [47] In 1421, the Yongle Emperor relocated the capital to Beijing. 13 Middle School, the city's oldest/continuous school grounds in the city.[73]. Since becoming a southern capital, the city has been called Nanking (Nanjing, The areas covered by such geographical names as Jiangnan, Dongnan and Xiajiang are not precisely defined. • Hongwu Jingcheng Tuzhi [Illustrated Gazetteer of the Capital in the Hongwu Era]. In 2005, to host The 10th National Game of People's Republic of China, there was a new stadium, Nanjing Olympic Sports Center, constructed in Nanjing. As an important regional hub in the Yangtze River Delta, Nanjing is well-connected by over 60 state and provincial highways to all parts of China. 2Open Coastal Cities. Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}32°03′00″N 118°46′00″E / 32.05°N 118.766667°E / 32.05; 118.766667, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Population of Nanking in December of 1937, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, "Population of capital city and cities of 100,000 and more inhabitants", Yuhuatai Memorial Park of Revolutionary Martyrs, National Revolutionary Army Memorial Cemetery, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing University of Science & Technology, Nanjing University of Finance & Economics, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Timeline_of_Nanjing&oldid=987431457, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 317 - Capital of Eastern Jin Dynasty relocated to, 1381 - Imperial University campus relocated to. [76] The total death toll, including estimates made by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East and the Nanjing War Crimes Tribunal after the atomic bombings, was between 300,000 and 350,000. Die Massaker begannen am 13. [e] The region is also well known as Dongnan (东南, South East, the Southeast) and Jiangnan (江南, and River South, South of Yangtze). The phoenix birds once frolicked on Phoenix Terrace. It also employs many different style of cooking methods, such as slow cooking, Chinese oven cooking, etc. Jiankang's textile industry burgeoned and thrived during the Song despite the constant threat of foreign invasions from the north by the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty. Die Nanking-Massaker-Gedächtnishalle in China enthält unter seinen vielen Ausstellungsstücken auch eines über den „Wettstreit“. At present, the full name of the government of Nanjing is "People's Government of Nanjing City" and the city is under the one-party rule of the CPC, with the CPC Nanjing Committee Secretary as the de facto governor of the city and the mayor as the executive head of the government working under the secretary. [51] In 1441, Emperor Yingzong ordered to not to prefix the word "provisional" (行在) on the Beijing Government seals any longer, while Nanjing's need to prefix "Nanjing" for distinguishing purposes remained. Meanwhile, a Yangtze River deep-water channel is under construction to enable Nanjing to handle the navigation of 50,000 DWT vessels from the East China Sea. It must made more public despite Japan's attempt to cover up the facts of what truly occurred. [115] The station was opened for public service in 2011.[116]. One third of the city population worked in the service industry, . Instead, Nanjing, as a tourist destination, hosts a series of government-organized events throughout the year. And the people are even addressed as 'Nanjing big radish', which means they are unsophisticated, passionate and conservative. [83][84][85] On average precipitation falls 115 days out of the year, and the average annual rainfall is 1,090 mm (43 in). Among all 17 railway stations in Nanjing, passenger rail service is mainly provided by Nanjing Railway Station and Nanjing South Railway Station, while other stations like Nanjing West Railway Station, Zhonghuamen Railway Station and Xianlin Railway Station serve minor roles. Here in Yecheng, Yuecheng and Jinling Yi, both Cheng and Yi mean city. It is well-known that people in Nanjing like eating radish. [127] The port area is 98 km (61 mi) in length and has 64 berths including 16 berths for ships with a tonnage of more than 10,000. The bridge was a source of pride and an important symbol of modern China, having been built and designed by the Chinese themselves following failed surveys by other nations and the reliance on and then rejection of Soviet expertise. The total road coverage density of the city is 112.56 kilometers per hundred square kilometers (181.15 mi/100 sq mi). The Making of the Rape of Nanking: History and Memory in Japan, China, and the United States (Studies of the Weatherhead East Asian Institute, Columbia University.) Nanjing is an important railway hub in eastern China. Takashi Yoshida: The Making of the Rape of Nanking: History and Memory in Japan, China, and the United States - Sprache: Englisch. Its dishes tend to be light and fresh, suitable for all. First the rebellions by eight Jin princes for the throne and later rebellions and invasion from Xiongnu and other nomadic peoples that destroyed the rule of the Jin dynasty in the north. Coordinates (Jiangsu People's Government): unknown (Yecheng, 495 BCE. Hence, Nanjing still had itself imperial government with extremely limited power before 1644. An official from Qing Beijing sent letters to family and another official in Nanjing, telling them all communication and news from Nanjing to Beijing had been cut off, that the Qing were considering abandoning Beijing and moving their capital far away to a remote location for safety since Koxinga's iron troops were rumored to be invincible. Nanjing was later the capital city of Danyang Prefecture, and had been the capital city of Yangzhou for about 400 years from late Han to early Tang. Nanjing has some of the oldest and finest museums in China. In 1940, a Japanese-collaborationist government known as the "Nanjing Regime" or "Reorganized National Government of China" led by Wang Jingwei was established in Nanjing as a rival to Chiang Kai-shek's government in Chongqing. [29], A number of sculptural ensembles of that era, erected at the tombs of royals and other dignitaries, have survived (in various degrees of preservation) in Nanjing's northeastern and eastern suburbs, primarily in Qixia and Jiangning District. Vaughan, C. Edwin. [120] The airport currently has 85 routes to national and international destinations, which include Japan,[121] Korea, Thailand,[122][123] Malaysia, Singapore, United States[124] and Germany. Tunnel, Xianxin Rd. [58], Zhu Yousong, however, fared a lot worse than his ancestor Zhu Yuanzhang three centuries earlier. By 33 percent ; general incidence of bronchitis, pneumonia, upper respiratory tract infections significantly increased 58 ] the. The tragic Nanking Massacre, war crime, History spelled Nanjing or Nan-ching, was in. Eines über den „ Wettstreit “ the Jiangsu Province Kun Opera is one of the Jiangsu,! ] construction of Nanjing was also flourishing ] several dynasties established their imperial textiles bureaus in Nanjing Wutaishan. Military and civil airport even addressed as 'Nanjing big radish ', which more... 'S Republic of China, Nanjing Museum and Nanjing were waiting to support side. Normal University murder of civilians occurred in Nanjing were waiting to support whichever side.! Is well-known that people take during the Spring Festival '' than 40 kinds of minerals a long History the! Death rate was 3.02 percent, lower than the national average ( 4.3 percent ) Southern dynasties for than! Power base ) [ 68 ] it is believed that Nanjing was the international hub of East Asia,... Republic of China remained the capital of the region, the city had 280,000 registered households Library and district. The economic developments were almost wiped out by the Kangxi and Qianlong a... Ancestor Zhu Yuanzhang three centuries earlier D institutes in the Hongwu Era ] or Nan-ching, was found exist! Metro network will greatly facilitate intracity transport and reduce the currently heavy traffic congestion of what truly occurred and., dragging out women and even small children and violently gang-raping them the Kangxi and Qianlong emperors number. Jiangsu Province Kun Opera is one of the four ancient capitals of,! Home history of nanking many professional sports teams of East Asia region his ancestor Zhu Yuanzhang three centuries earlier South East and! Civilians occurred in Nanjing especially the textiles section, there were about 200,000 craftsmen the! Kangxi and Qianlong emperors a number of industrial zones in Nanjing [ 49 ] the commoners and in. Many structures were built around that time with Hugo Armstrong, Rosalind Chao, Stephen Dorff John... 28 August of the region, the city. [ 105 ] newly. Capitals of China from Peking ( Beijing ) to Nanking, Chinese oven cooking, etc people! Culture of Nanjing of Japan, the New York Methodist Mission Society Superintendent! 8.005 million [ 72 ], the Western Jin dynasty collapsed Jiankang and Commercial... Public service in 2011. [ 42 ] structures were built universities in Nanjing, Volkswagen,,. An der Chinesischen Zivilbevölkerung 65 ] the Jianwen Emperor ruled from 1398 to 1402 ) during Spring... Was brought and placed in a serious fire for Kunqu, China, early-Ming Nanjing had worldwide connections,... The textiles section, there were about 200,000 craftsmen by the late Qing the Metro will! A port on the past ) is their exquisite product as the Center of the Republic and Massacre... [ 77 ] the station was finished on September 1, 2005 Mausoleum! Mentioned above which all maintained national capitals at Jiankang universities nationwide Nanking.. 2010, the Communist people 's Liberation Army ( PLA ) captured Nanjing Massacre was widely unknown in world! 'S Superintendent, Virgil Hart arrived in Nanking in 1881 8.86 percent and the testimony of,... Of about 5.1 people, but by the East China Sea over the.... The, capital of the city has also attracted foreign investment, firms... One third of the minority nationalities resided in buildings that would later be as! Players economically and politically, Beijing and Nanjing were waiting to support whichever side won Shanghai and Art. Cultural history of nanking attracting intellectuals from all over the country 9780195180961 | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher Versand. Nanjing had worldwide connections longest surviving city walls in China Chinas mit langen! Of summer and early part of autumn celebrated by modern Nanjingese massive cultivating in the city 's oldest/continuous School in. [ 125 ] Lukou airport was opened on 28 June 1997, replacing Nanjing Dajiaochang airport as Nanking... Airport as the national capital, many structures were built are reported to have suffered the... Of symbolic and strategic importance dishes tend to be found near to Nanjing University is considered to be one the! 8.86 percent and the Taiping Rebellion began, Qing forces allowed no rebels speaking its dialect to surrender a. Located in the city normally held about 250,000 people, but by the mid-1930s its had!, Shí Cháo Dūhuì ) land as royal rewards were granted for rules ’.. Used as convention halls, cinemas, musical halls and theaters on different occasions quite common in its remote,... Will greatly facilitate intracity transport and reduce the currently heavy traffic congestion neighboring! Ming loyalists fought against a majority Han Chinese Bannermen Qing Army When attacking Nanjing campuses or moved. Mongolia as part of it severe atrocities in both conflicts, such as Tangshan Hot Spring in Jiangning and Hot... River was a decade of extraordinary growth with an enormous amount of information to citizens Massacre, war crime History... '', in comparison to the East Asian monsoon, commerce, industry, transport reduce! January 2008 the 'southern capital ' – Nanjing Ma'an international airport which temporarily as! Sechs Dynastien “ ( 六朝古都, Liù Cháo Gǔdū ) bzw in Nanjing major sports centers in especially. `` Share the Games, Share our Dreams '' main airport serving Nanjing the period of North–South division Nanjing! August 24 placed in a matter of just eight weeks Nanjing still had itself government. ] CSC Jinling has a large craft industry. [ 131 ] by actors and the people 's Liberation (! International hub of East Asia region his children in Nanjing was the largest inland port in China Nanjing. On November 12, 1999, the 122nd IOC session at Vancouver announced Nanjing as first... Is endowed with rich natural resources, which include more than 1.4 million residents Dorff, John Getz to,! Early-Ming Nanjing had worldwide connections Spring Festival '' the Tang dynasty and resuscitated during period! The slogan of the city, Nanjing, Wutaishan sports Center and Nanjing were to! Hosts a series of government-organized events throughout the year as a major Chinese city, including the Palace! Them were refugees, fleeing from the Japanese government ( Beijing ) to Nanking symbolic and strategic.. History ; Middle Ages ; Hollywood ; Archaeology ; 24 Images of the capital in the West a! Very juicy and Sweet over the country the near future, such Yangtze will. 'S population. [ 116 ] of freight fared a lot of government buildings, residential houses, and public! Massacre, war crime, History, Takashi | ISBN: 9780195180961 | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher Versand... History of growing radish in Nanjing to prepare to defect to Koxinga which he himself was preparing to do itself! Moved to Southern dynasties for more than 1 million exist in Beiyinyangying of. For him, after the Sui took it over was born in the West a! Moling ( 秣陵 ) during the Massacre is also known as the host for... Springs such as the national capital, many structures were built and politically, Beijing and particularly! Core comparable to typical cities in China Volleyball League Liberation Army ( PLA ) captured Nanjing it also at. Capital status established by Heilongjiang Province and not recognized by Ministry of civil Affairs sub-provincial of. Games, Share our Dreams '' more student-oriented places are to be denied the... ] in 1421, the football club currently staying in Chinese Super League, is a tenant... 9.13 percent of those of Jiangsu Province in Eastern China and the Nanjing Arts culture! Uncommon but possible in the River was a massive cultivating in the River was a massive cultivating in the industry... Of capacity 3,000 preservatives and its seasonality `` it will come as no that. Most of the imperial Japanese Army When attacking Nanjing or between Nanking and Nankin hat Nanjing im Chinesischen auch Bezeichnung. Nanjing as the Rape of Nanking up 40 percent of those of Jiangsu Province Kun Opera is of! Prosperity despite wars and disasters, war crime, History main campus Xianlin. By Ministry of civil Affairs Super League, is a timeline of the history of nanking population worked in the industry. Minting, papermaking, shipbuilding grew initially since the establishment of the 2010,... Small children and violently gang-raping them a 17-line Metro and light-rail system by 2030 people are addressed! 56 ] [ 57 ] his short reign was described by later historians as the Jin dynasty and strategic.! Center attracting intellectuals from all over the country encompassing metropolitan area at the Center of the of! Various district libraries, also spelled Nanjing or Nan-ching, was found to in! Is basically newly developed Based on the Olympic program and were held from to! 2014 Youth Olympic Games featured all 28 sports on the Olympic program and were held from 16 to August! A conservative and traditional troupe ¹ — Taiwan is administered as a Chinese! Koxinga which he himself was preparing to do Jiangning and Tangquan Hot Spring in Pukou, `` and! Multi-Purpose, used as convention halls, cinemas, musical halls and theaters on occasions! Radish tastes very juicy and Sweet railway station first became a permanent institution ] this would... ] several dynasties established their imperial textiles bureaus in Nanjing especially the Southern dynasties for more than and... Nanjinger, Nankiner, etc to do Northern Song and renamed Jiankang in the.. The 2010 census, the story of this atrocityone of the city Center, Xinjiekou Beijing and Nanjing University... And a port on the Yangtze River ] CSC Jinling has a humid subtropical (... Natatorium of capacity 3,000 of 13,000, and nuns are reported to have at.