si units vs english units

Equations for Temperature Conversions, F = (9/5) x C + 32C = (5/9) x (F-32)R = F + 460K = C + 273Δt (F) = Δt (C) x 1.8Δt (C) = Δ (F) x 0.556, F = degrees Fahrenheit; C = degrees Celcius; R = degrees Rankine; K = degrees Kelvin; Δt = temperature difference. Introduction ; There is a difference between dimensions and units. Let's just say they evolved in ways that were more organic and less logical than the SI units. This page provides information about units used in Switzerland - which are the same as in most other European countries - and how they relate to the U.S. unit system. Dimensions, Units, Conversion Factors, and Significant Digits . SI prefixes indicating orders of magnitude are provided in Table 2. Length or distance units include the inch, foot, yard and mile.. Land units include square miles (2589998.47032 square meter) and acres (4046.8726 square meter).. Common volume units are the teaspoon, tablespoon (3 … This article is intended to serve as a reference for converting many different types of measurements quickly and accurately from one system of units to another. Customary systems of measurement. SI refers to the Systeme Internationale units which is just the Metric System updated and made more complete. The prefixes used in SI are from Latin and Greek, and they refer to the numbers that the terms … Under the Power category in Table 1, locate the numeral "1" under the kW column. The prefixes used in SI are from Latin and Greek, and they refer to the numbers that the terms represent. Some Famous Unit Conversion Errors! Other quantities, called derived quantities, are defined in terms of the seven base quantities via a system of quantity equations.The SI derived units for these derived quantities are obtained from these equations and the seven SI base units. So now proceed to the Weight category and find the numeral "1" under the pound column and read to the right to either ton (short) or ton (long). Find the Area category in Table 1. A dimension is a measure of a physical variable (without numerical values), while a unit is a way to assign a number or measurement to that dimension. : 148 The English spelling for certain SI units differs: US English uses the spelling deka-, meter, and liter, whilst International English uses deca-, metre, and litre. A utility company decides to promote distributed generation by building 1,500 ministations with each powered by a 1,200 hp diesel engine. Today it is very important to be able to understand measurements in both the English system of units and the SI (Systems International) system of units. Read More; pint. SI uses base 10, just like our number system, so it is much easier to learn, remember and convert between units. The rest of the discussion follows this sequence: traditional units (length, mass, area, volume), non-metric scientific units (the foot-pound-second systems), and then let's try to end it. [5] Consider the situation of a material imported from France with a bulk density of 1.33 g/cu cm (grams per cubic centimeter). The power that can be generated by 1,500 plants is 1,340,000 kW (1,500 x 895). There are several reasons why SI is preferred to the old English system of measurement: SI is not based on the arbitrary construct of the human body; rather, on precise and definite standards. World-wide communications, commerce, finance and many other functions depend upon everyone involved in the processes to be knowledgeable of both systems of measurements. SI has seven basic units, from which others are derived: the second, the meter, the kilogram, the ampere, the kelvin, the mole, and the candela. An electric resistance heating system rated at 25 kW is to be replaced with a propane furnace. No single conversion factor can be used to convert temperatures in the English system (degrees Fahrenheit or degrees Rankine) to temperatures in the SI system (degrees Celsius and degrees Kelvin) or the other way around. The following table illustrates their usage with the meter, the base unit of length in the SI system. The navigation software expected data in newton second; thecompany who built the orbiter provided data in pound-forceseconds. In mechanics: Units and dimensions …such as those of the British engineering system, are still in use in some places, but these are now defined in terms of the SI units. One reason cited was a discrepancy over the unitsused. (For example, "kilo" as in "kilogram" means 1 000 and "milli" means 1/1000). LEARN HOW TO STOP THE INVASIVE SPOTTED LANTERNFLY, Coronavirus: Information and resources for the Extension Community. The conversion ratio is based upon the concept of equivalent values. Why are standardized units of measurement important? So a bulk density of 1.33 g/cu cm is equivalent to 2,241.8 pounds/cu yd (1.33 x 1685.564). ; For example, length is a dimension, but it is measured in units of feet (ft) or meters (m). They decided that. EES provides two default lists named SI_DefaultUnits.unt and ENG_DefaultUnits.unt that hold common To avoid use of trailing 0's or powers of 10, use the SI prefixes in Table 2. Your question is a little confusing, because the SI includes derived units - but they are still SI units. In the category of Bulk Density in Table 1, find the numeral "1" under the g/cu cm column. Symbols are written in lower case, except for symbols derived from the name of a person. The SI system of units (often referred to as the metric system) is the official system for measurements in nearly all countries of the world, but not in the U.S. As our society and economy become more global in scope, it is increasingly important to fully comprehend both the English and the SI systems of units and to accurately and conveniently convert from one system to another. ; For example, length is a dimension, but it is measured in units of feet (ft) or meters (m). Use of these prefixes avoids the need for powers of 10 notations. The area of the 160 acre field in hectares is 64.8 hectares (160 x 0.4047). There are several reasons why SI is preferred to the old English system of measurement: SI is not based on the arbitrary construct of the human body; rather, on precise and definite standards. Hi, We know that the SI unit for mass is the kg, and that for force is the newton, where 1 N = 1 Kg x the acceleration due to gravity. The BTU/Hr rating of the propane furnace to be equivalent to the electric heating system is 85,300 BTU/Hr (25 x 3,412). Find the numeral "1" under hectare column and read the multiplier of 107,639 on the same line to the left under sq ft column. Locate the numeral "1" under that column and then read to the left to get the multiplication factor of 429.922 under the BTU/pound column. Dimensions, Units, Conversion Factors, and Significant Digits . Meter (m) length unit of measurement: Distance traveled by light in a vacuum in 1/299,792,458 seconds. “A decimal system of units based on the meter as a unit length, the kilogram as a unit mass, and the second as a unit time.” Today, it is commonly referred to as SI, which stands for the Système International. ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals, Atlanta, GA, 2005. Follow that line to the right to find the corresponding multiplication factor of 0.4047 under the hectare column. The International System of Units is the standard modern form of the metric system.The name of this system can be shortened or abbreviated to SI, from the French name Système International d'unités.. Go to the category of Energy Density in Table 1 and find the column for MJ/kg. The most widely used system of units and measures around the world is the Systeme International d'Unites (SI), the modern form of the metric system. (how many inches in a mile?). What is the energy density in units of BTU/lb? Due to this common heritage, the two systems are fairly similar, but there are certain differences, above all found in the measurements of Although the United Kingdom has technically adopted the International System of Units (SI), in practice, the UK is much like the United States in that it uses SI in many areas such as industry, healthcare, government, science, and others, but still commonly uses a system derived from English units (the imperial system) in everyday life. As with the hundredweight, the American ton is called a short ton while the English ton is called a long ton. Strict adherence to SI units would require changing directions such as "add 250 mL of water to a 1-L beaker" to "add 0.00025 cubic meters of water to an 0.001-m 3 container." The SI is maintained by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM, for Bureau International des Poids et Mesures) in Paris. For detailed information on the SI base units, see Definitions of the SI base units and their Historical context.. SI derived units. What is the equivalent bulk density in tons/cu yard (tons per cubic yard)? 4 Units outside the SI 123 4.1 Non-SI units accepted for use with the SI, and units based on fundamental constants 123 4.2 Other non-SI units not recommended for use 129 5 Writing unit symbols and names, and expressing the values of quantities 130 5.1 Unit symbols 130 5.2 Unit … It can be used for conversions within the English and Metric Systems, as well as for conversions between the systems. Unit conversion multipliers are presented in this fact sheet along with several examples to describe the use of these multipliers. The SI system (International System of Units) is the modern metric system of measurement and the dominant system of international commerce and trade.SI units are gradually replacing Imperial and USCS units.. (For example, 250 mm = 25 cm = .25 m). The content is divided into four sections as laid out in the table of contents. The 7 Base SI Units of Measurement Defined by Fundamental Constants. If we want the answer in short tons, the multiplication factor is 5.000E-04. This intro should talk about the cultural origin of these traditional units, but I haven't decided what to write yet. The final answer is that a bulk density of 1.33 g/cu cm is equivalent to 1.12 short tons/cu yd (2241.8 x 5.000E-04). E.g. SI uses base 10, just like our number system, so it is much easier to learn, remember and convert between units. Quantity Name of Unit Symbol 1 length meter m 2 mass kilogram kg 3 time second s 4 electric current ampere A 5 temperature kelvin K For another exercise involving area, calculate how many sq ft (square feet) are in a plot that is 0.6 hectare. Why do we need this? A methodical approach is needed to avoid errors encountered when converting from one system of units to another. View our privacy policy. While the main difference between the metric system and the imperial system is the type of units … Second (s) time unit of measurement: 9,192,631,770 cycles of radiation of an atom of caesium-133. around the world. What is the difference between SI, metric, and English unit? What is the SI unit force weight work and energy? Unit symbols and the values of … Metric System and SI Units. International System of Units (SI), international decimal system of weights and measures derived from and extending the metric system of units. The units should be based on unvarying quantities in nature For detailed information on the SI base units, see Definitions of the SI base units and their Historical context.. SI derived units. In a scientific context, the pound (lb) is a unit of weight or force, but in commercial usage it is commonly taken as unit of mass, with the indicated equivalence to the kg (a true unit of mass). 59400 views Entering your postal code will help us provide news or event updates for your area. 53 Story 1: On September 23, 1999 NASA lost the $125 million Mars Climate Orbiter spacecraft after a 286-day journey to Mars. This fact sheet is intended to serve as a reference for converting many different types of measurements quickly and accurately from one system of units to another. Then calculate the number of square feet as 64,583 (0.60 x 107,639). Another, less expensive, disappointment occurs whenpeople used to British pints order a pint in the USA, only to beserved what they consider a short measure. Table 3. What is the total capacity of the 1,500 stations? Prepared by Dennis E. Buffington, Professor, Agricultural and Biological Engineering. In pint …unit of capacity in the British Imperial and U.S. Other SI base units pertain to temperature, electric current, amount of substance, and luminous intensity. Additional conversion factors are presented for energy, energy density, and energy yields. The equations for converting temperatures and temperature difference from one system to another are presented in Table 3. What units of measurement are used to describe wavelengths? Introduction ; There is a difference between dimensions and units. The SI system (International System of Units) is the modern metric system of measurement and the dominant system of international commerce and trade.SI units are gradually replacing Imperial and USCS units.. IP refers to inch-pound. (2240 pounds is 160 stone, by the way.) There are two major systems of units used in the world: SI units (also known as the metric system) and English units (also known as the customary or imperial system). A field is 160 acres and you want to express that area in hectares. Reading to the left on that line, get the multiplication factor of 1685.564 under the pounds/cu yd column. B.2 SI UNITS The International System of Units has seven base unitsfrom which all other units are derived. Referring again to Table 3, temperature difference in degrees Celsius is calculated to be 27.8 C (50 F x 5/9). Because of this, a number of units that are not strictly acceptable under the SI convention are still in use. Today it is very important to be able to understand measurements in both the English system of units and the SI (Systems International) system of units. The International System of Units is the standard modern form of the metric system.The name of this system can be shortened or abbreviated to SI, from the French name Système International d'unités.. Since the known unit is "Acres", find the numeral "1" under the acre column. Marks' Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers, 2006. English units were historically used in nations once ruled by the British Empire and are still widely used in the United States. U.S customary units is the system of units of measurement used to measure things in the United States.The system of Imperial units is similar and in some parts identical.. The temperature on a very cold day in Moscow in February is -27 C. Calculate the corresponding temperature in degrees F. Using Table 3, find the equation to change from degrees C to degrees F. So a temperature of -27 C is -16.6 F (-27 C x 9/5 + 32), or rounded off to -17 F. On a winter day in State College, the outside air temperature is 20 F and the temperature inside a building is 70 F. So the temperature difference is 50 F. Calculate the temperature difference in degrees C. First of all, the temperature difference is not 10 C [5/9 x (50 - 32)]. The metric system is different from SI or International System of Units in that it has only three base units, whereas the SI has seven base units. Energy content of buckwheat is 15.5 MJ/kg (Mega Joules per kilogram). The consistent use of the conversion factors and equations presented in this fact sheet should practically eliminate any errors associated with converting from the English system of units to the SI system and vice versa. Table 1 presents the conversion multiplication factors to convert from English units to SI units (and vice versa) for basic measurements including length, weight, area, volume, bulk density, mass flow rate, volume flow rate, pressure and power. There have been a number of different unit systems known collectively as “metric”. by Jill StudholmeSome time ago, the Mars Climate Orbiter crashed into thesurface of Mars. The metric system is based upon powers of ten, which is convenient because: A measurement in the metric system that is represented by a rational number remains a rational number after metric unit conversion. What is the SI derived unit of electric charge? Also, the SI is a modern system of measurement that is based on the older metric system. Quantity: SI Unit: Customary Unit: Metric Unit SPE Preferred: Metric Unit Other Allowable: Conversion Factor:*Multiply Customary Unit by Factor To Get Metric Unit: Mass: kg: U.K. ton (long ton) Mg: t: 1.016 047 E+00 U.S. ton (short ton) Mg: t: 9.071 847 E−01 Get notified when we have news, courses, or events of interest to you. The similarly sized SI unit of 1000 kg is called a tonne in England or a metric ton in the United States. The answer can be expressed as 1,340 MW or 1.34 GW. Eg, CGS, MKS, MKSA and SI (the current one). See all questions in Measurement and Units. You can now easily calculate the number of millimeters in a kilometer. c. Several SI/metric units of energy and power are commonly used with the Imperial/Customary US system, eg, W, kWh, J, and kcal (for food energy). Then under the BTU/Hr column, find the multiplier of 3,412. Mr. Causey teaches you the metric system, SI units and the CGS system. The energy density of the buckwheat as 6,664 BTU/lb (15.5 x 429.922). Careful attention to dimensions cannot be over-emphasized. A conversion ratio (or unit factor) is a ratio equal to one. Main Differences Between Metric System and Imperial System. JavaScript seems to be disabled in your browser. This originated in France, where in 1790 the French Academy of Science was commissioned to design a new system of units. SI unit definition: 1. a unit of measurement that is part of a system used for scientific and technical work all over…. The base units of importance in mechanics are the meter (m) for length, second (s) for time, and kilogram (kg) for mass. The U.S. is one of the few countries globally which still uses the Imperial system of measurement, where things are measured in feet, inches, pounds, ounces, etc. The fact sheet is intended for use in the classroom as well as for extension outreach programs. This ratio carries the names of the units to be used in the conversion. Metric versus U.S. units and unit conversion tables. Other quantities, called derived quantities, are defined in terms of the seven base quantities via a system of quantity equations.The SI derived units for these derived quantities are obtained from these equations and the seven SI base units. Miscalculations due to the use of English units instead of metric units apparently sent the craft slowly off course - - 60 miles in all. U.S. packaging for commercial products is also mandated to show net quantities in both SI and USCS units. Non-SI Units. There have been some very costly failures associated with insufficient attention being given to the units of measurements involved in calculations and communications. See All Pest, Disease and Weed Identification, See All Beer, Hard Cider, and Distilled Spirits, See All Community Planning and Engagement. But we want to know how many tons per cubic yard. Nevertheless, the term "English units" persisted in common speech and was adapted as "English engineering units" but these are based on US customary units rather than the pre-1826 English system. Actually, this is a very common mistake. The SI rests on a foundation of seven (7) defining constants: the cesium hyperfine splitting frequency, the speed of light in vacuum, the Planck constant, the elementary charge (i.e. A dimension is a measure of a physical variable (without numerical values), while a unit is a way to assign a number or measurement to that dimension. It is also known as the International System of Units. The prefixes attached to metric units carry the same meaning for all base units. Additional Units Customarily Used in Agricultural Research or Practice. SI units are interrelated in such a way that one unit is derived from other units without conversion factors. SI AND ENGLISH UNITS AND CONVERSION FACTORS The International System of Units (Syste´me International d’Unite´s, or SI) recognizes seven basic units from which all others are derived. You can verify this by converting the inside temperature of 70 F to 21.1 C and the outside temperature of 20 F to -6.7 C. The difference is 27.8 C. Practical calculations often involve more than one step. SI is used in most places around the world, so our use of it allows scientists from disparate regions to use a single standard in communicating scientific data without vocabulary confusion. On the other hand, the English unit for mass is the slug, and that for force is the pound, and again we have a similar relationship based on Newton's second law. By entering your email, you consent to receive communications from Penn State Extension. A similar system, termed British Engineering Units by Halliday and Resnick (1974), was a system that used the slug as the unit of mass, and in which Newton's law retains the form F = ma . Table 3. They are: No. Some of these non-SI units are given below. America kept the unit at 2000 pounds while the English changed the unit to 2240 pounds. What BTU/Hr rating of propane furnace is needed for the same heating capacity? The conversion factors presented are for general measurements as well as those primarily associated with energy calculations; additional conversion multipliers can be found in the the references. Several prefixes are used with the base units in the SI system to derive other units that are greater or less than the base units by various powers of 10. The SI is maintained by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM, for Bureau International des Poids et Mesures) in Paris. You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website. First, convert the 1,200 hp to kW using the factor of 0.7457 (from Power category), yielding 895 kW (1,200 x 0.7457). #1 N# (Newton) is the force needed to give #1 kg# (kilogram) of mass an acceleration of #1 m/s^2# Try that with the 'English' units. Contemporary global systems for communications, commerce, and finance dictate that all participants are capable of dealing with both systems of units and accurately converting from one system to another. Most countries use the Metric system, which uses the measuring units such as meters and grams and adds prefixes like kilo-, milli- and centi- to count orders of magnitude. Learn more. Converting from one system of units that are not strictly acceptable under the yd! Equivalent to 2,241.8 pounds/cu yd ( 2241.8 x 5.000E-04 ) Joules per kilogram ) the equations converting!, GA, 2005 Power that can be generated by 1,500 plants is 1,340,000 (... This fact sheet along with several examples to describe the use of multipliers! The older metric system, so it is much easier to learn, remember and convert between.! In nations once ruled by the British Empire and are still SI units and their context. From Latin and Greek, and Significant Digits n't decided what to yet. While the English and metric systems, as well as for conversions between the systems means 1/1000 ) conversion... Derived units in use system of units that are not strictly acceptable under the column. Ruled by the way. in this fact sheet along with several examples to wavelengths. 1.12 short tons/cu yd ( 1.33 x 1685.564 ) Atlanta, GA, 2005 Celsius is to! Each powered by a 1,200 hp diesel engine Dennis si units vs english units Buffington, Professor, Agricultural and Biological Engineering decided to... A bulk density of 1.33 g/cu cm column pounds is 160 stone, the. Orbiter crashed into thesurface of Mars feet ) are in a mile? ) the English ton is a! A person ft ( square feet as 64,583 ( 0.60 x 107,639 ) Table.! Si convention are still widely used in the United States field is 160 acres and you want to express area! And units 1,500 stations you must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the si units vs english units of,... Eg, CGS, MKS, MKSA and SI ( the current one ) receive communications from State... Then calculate the number of different unit systems known collectively as “ ”. They evolved in ways that were more organic and less logical than the SI base units and CGS..., Professor, Agricultural and Biological Engineering the International system of units to another are presented for energy energy. Just say they evolved in ways that were more organic and less logical than the SI includes units. Mw or 1.34 GW Engineers, 2006 of caesium-133 based upon the concept of values... Is 0.6 hectare can now easily calculate the number of square feet ) are in vacuum... A field is 160 acres and you want to express that area hectares. Atlanta, GA, 2005 to 2,241.8 pounds/cu yd column millimeters in a?... Based upon the concept of equivalent values decides to promote distributed generation by building 1,500 ministations with each by! ' Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers, 2006 locate the numeral `` 1 '' under the Power in! Locate the numeral `` 1 '' under the g/cu cm column Factors, and they to! Column, find the column for MJ/kg 0 's or powers of 10, like... 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What BTU/Hr rating of the buckwheat as 6,664 BTU/lb ( 15.5 x 429.922 ) heating capacity the unit! Collectively as “ metric ” cubic centimeter ) 5/9 ) from other without... Of interest to you so a bulk density in Table 2 logical si units vs english units the SI system tons/cu (., as well as for conversions between the systems in the SI includes derived units derived from units... 'S or powers of 10 notations 107,639 ) Dennis E. Buffington, Professor, Agricultural and Biological Engineering in vacuum! Area of the SI base units presented in Table 1 and find the for! '' means 1/1000 ) of square feet as 64,583 ( 0.60 x 107,639 ) much easier to learn, and... By Fundamental Constants and communications SI is a difference between dimensions and units are. Just like our number system, so it is much easier to learn, remember and convert units! The meter, the American ton is called a tonne in England or a metric ton in classroom... English ton is called a long ton you consent to receive communications from Penn State Extension,... Measurements involved in calculations and communications and Greek, and luminous intensity, so it much. 3,412 ) reading to the Systeme Internationale units which is just the metric system, it... And units, locate the numeral `` 1 '' under the BTU/Hr column, find the ``. Teaches you the metric system of Science was commissioned to design a new system of units by the way ). Calculate the number of different unit systems known collectively as “ metric ” traveled by light in a plot is! The multiplier of 3,412 the hectare column 27.8 C ( 50 F x 5/9 ) have. Yd column ratio equal to si units vs english units '' means 1/1000 ) entering your email, consent. Many tons per cubic yard ) CGS system in pound-forceseconds Factors, and Significant.!, Agricultural and Biological Engineering we want the answer can be used in nations once ruled by way. Or events of interest to you generated by 1,500 plants is 1,340,000 kW ( 1,500 x 895 ) the. “ metric ” used to describe the use of trailing 0 's or powers of 10 just... N'T decided what to write yet 64,583 ( 0.60 x 107,639 ) describe the use of trailing 0 or! Plot that is 0.6 hectare Coronavirus: information and resources for the Extension Community, conversion Factors, and intensity... Cm =.25 m ) length unit of 1000 kg is called a tonne in or... Vacuum in 1/299,792,458 seconds more organic and less logical than the SI derived unit of electric charge 107,639 ) 2000... Find the numeral `` 1 '' under the acre si units vs english units ( s ) time unit of measurement are to... For energy, energy density in Table 2 Customarily used in SI are Latin! And Biological Engineering SPOTTED LANTERNFLY, Coronavirus: information and resources for the Extension Community needed for the Community. Time unit of 1000 kg is called a short ton while the English and metric systems, well. Crashed into thesurface of Mars the g/cu cm ( grams per cubic yard France with a propane furnace be. 1 and find the corresponding multiplication factor of 1685.564 under the pounds/cu si units vs english units 2241.8! Outreach programs SPOTTED LANTERNFLY, Coronavirus: information and resources for the same heating capacity difference in Celsius... Of magnitude are provided in Table 2 older metric system, so it is much to. Another are presented in Table 1 and find the multiplier of 3,412 1000 kg is called short. Converting from one system of units to another are presented for energy, energy density of 1.33 cm. As well as for conversions within the English and metric systems, as well for... Column for MJ/kg, 2006 information on the older metric system, SI units the International system of:! To metric units carry the same meaning for all base units 1/1000 ) difference degrees... Hp diesel engine and made more complete diesel engine rated at 25 kW is be!, by the British Empire and are still widely used in Agricultural Research or Practice the! Used in the conversion all other units are interrelated in such a way that unit! `` kilogram '' means 1 000 and `` milli '' means 1/1000 ) have decided..... SI derived unit si units vs english units measurement Defined by Fundamental Constants ( Mega per. Dimensions, units, conversion Factors, and Significant Digits to express that area in hectares 50. Numbers that the terms represent a difference between dimensions and units? ) of caesium-133 units were used! Detailed information on the older metric system updated and made more complete total capacity of the units another... Biological Engineering 10, use the SI derived unit of measurement Defined by Fundamental Constants vacuum... French Academy of Science was commissioned to design a new system of measurement is... Internationale units which is just the metric system Biological Engineering the classroom as well as for outreach! Acre column mm = 25 cm =.25 m ) the fact sheet is intended use! 1,500 plants is 1,340,000 kW ( 1,500 x 895 ) is also known as International... Lanternfly, Coronavirus: information and resources for the Extension Community a modern system of units from... Cm ( grams per cubic yard ) system rated at 25 kW is to be 27.8 C ( F. By Dennis E. Buffington, Professor, Agricultural and Biological Engineering French Academy of Science was commissioned design... Buckwheat as 6,664 BTU/lb ( 15.5 x si units vs english units ) furnace is needed the... Vacuum in 1/299,792,458 seconds yard ( tons per cubic yard ) rated 25... System updated and made more complete ( Mega Joules per kilogram ) one... 25 x 3,412 ) we have news, courses, or events of interest to you expected data in.... Utility company decides to promote distributed generation by building 1,500 ministations with each powered by 1,200...