Myanmar classifies amber as a gemstone, not a fossil, so it can be legally removed from the country, unlike fossils that have restrictions on removal.  Steven Senne, Student Athletes Still Reluctant to Report Concussions, Nationwide Children’s Study Finds, Columbus Dispatch, Nov. 24, 2019, at https://www.dispatch.com/news/20191124/student-athletes-still-reluctant-to-report-concussions-nationwide-childrens-study-finds.  Christie Aschwanden, Football’s Concussion Crisis is Awash with Pseudoscience, Wired.com, Oct. 2, 2019. A hard … Why or why not? … As told in the movies, a significant scientific breakthrough occurred in 2002 when an African-American neuropathologist in Pittsburgh named Bennet Omalu (played by Will Smith in the 2015 movie “Concussion”) performed an autopsy on Hall of Fame center Mike Webster. What moral principles would you take into account? But few would consider it an acceptable course of action, let alone the most ethical one. Bry’s answer is that it’s not the players who are immoral, it is the fans who are comparable to Romans sitting in the Colosseum watching lions devour Christians. Discussion Questions on High Schools & Colleges, Discussion Questions on Youth Leagues (Under 14). Why or why not. Utilitarianism would say that an action is right if it results in the happiness of the greatest number of people in a society or a group. Do you think this an ethical issue or just a policy issue? It is the only moral framework that can be used to justify military force or war.  Center for Disease Control, at https://www.cdc.gov/headsup/basics/concussion_whatis.html. How about the reverse—why do many people who believe football players should be free to decide what they do with their bodies take decidedly un-libertarian positions on issues such as abortion, marijuana legalization, and assisted suicide?  Kevin Seifer, Did the Helmet Rule Actually Work? And concussion recurrence has been reduced, most likely by protocols guiding when it is safe to return to play. As such, it is the only moral framework that can justify military force or war. See also Michael Cunningham, Player Safety Takes Back Seat as NCAA Rushes to Allow Campus Workouts, Atlanta Journal-Constitution, May 22, 2020.  Peter Benson, Big Football: Corporate Social Responsibility and the Culture and Color of Injury in America’s Most Popular Sport, Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 41(4): 307-334 (2017); Daniel Goldberg, What Does the Precautionary Principle Demand of Us? So, utilitarianism provides a basis for criticizing business behaviours that cause harm to anyone at all. Jeremy Bentham describes his "greatest happiness principle" in Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation, a 1789 publication in which he writes: "Nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure. See also Ann C. McKee et al., The Spectrum of Disease in Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy, Brain, 136(1)): 43-64 (2013)(study of donated brains of 64 athletes found “the stage of [CTE] correlated with increased duration of football play, survival after football and age at death” for 34 football players). Business analysts, legislators, and scientists weigh daily the resulting benefits and harms of policies when deciding, for example, whether to invest resources in a certain public project, whether to approve a new drug, or whether to ban a certain pesticide. Social justice is a concept holding that all people should have equal access to wealth, health, well-being, privileges, and opportunity. Utilitarianism vs. Deontology vs. Virtue Ethics. Utilitarianism, business ethics and the Ford Pinto case present a dilemma, as the theory appears to be one of moral strength and a good guideline for ethical business choice. Microeconomics is the branch of economics that analyzes market behavior of individuals and firms in order to understand their decision-making processes. In a study of 14,000 NFL players, researchers found that even head impacts insufficient to cause concussions can mount up over the years, leading to CTE and premature death. Bry believes that this will never happen. There is no official state religion but the Myanmar government favors the majority Theravada Buddhism population.  Anthony E. Prior, The Slave Side of Sunday (2006). Utilitarianism can be used in any business decision that seeks to maximize positive effects (especially morally, but also financially) and minimize negative ones. John Stuart Mill adapted Jeremy … How is happiness defined?  Marc Siegel, Concussions and Football: New Helmets, New Tools, The Hill, Aug. 19, 2019. Ethics, Population Health Policy, and Sports-Related TBI, in Sociolcultural Examinations of Sports Concussions (Matt Ventresca & Mary McDonald eds, 2020). Is there a case to be made for “justified harm” in any of these leagues? When directed toward making social, economic, or political decisions, a utilitarian philosophy would aim for the betterment of society as a whole. Relatedly, should fans of the game be ashamed of themselves? They’re all in good shape. Discuss your reasoning. Utilitarianism also has trouble accounting for values like justice and individual rights. Utilitarianism … Customers who fly in first or business class pay a much higher rate than those in economy seats, but they also get more amenities—simultaneously, people who cannot afford upper-class seats benefit from the economy rates. Utilitarianism analysis is concerned with whether or not the decision made lead to the greatest good for the greatest number of people (De George, 2010). This has led some to suggest that the NFL is a modern plantation. Are there other cognitive biases and heuristics that might adversely affect your moral reasoning if you are not careful? BUSINESS ETHICS :: Utilitarianism • Introduction • Jeremy Bentham • Theory of Utility • Types of Utilitarianism • Some Criticisms • Moral Dilemma Introduction Over the course of the next two lectures we will be looking at two of the Utilitarianism is a consequential moral theory, which means that the question of any action being morally right or wrong depends on the good or bad effects it produces. In many respects, it is the outlook of Scottish philosopher David Hume (1711-1776) and his writings from the mid-18th century.  Everett J. Lehman et al., Suicide Mortality Among Retired National Football League Players Who Played 5 or More Seasons, American Journal of Sports Medicine, 44(10): 2486-2491 (2016). Utilitarianism, in normative ethics, a tradition stemming from the late 18th- and 19th-century English philosophers and economists Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill according to which an action is right if it tends to promote happiness and wrong if it tends to produce the reverse of happiness.  Jesse Mez et al., Duration of American Football Play and Chronic Traumatic Encephalopothy, Annals of Neurology, 2019; DOI: 10.1002/ana.25611.  Sameer K. Deshpande et al, Association of Playing High School Football with Cognition and Mental Health Later in Life, JAMA Neurology, 74(8): 909-918 (2017). Moreover, utilitarianism is the most common approach to business ethics because of the way that it accounts for costs and benefits.  J.S. For many years this mining area has been protected by the Kachin Independence Army. (Probably not; other kinds of brain abnormalities, such as inflammation or damage to neural wiring from head injuries, may play a role.)”. Consumers are looking for companies that they can trust, and employees work better when there is a solid model of ethics in place. Companies also must endeavor to keep their promises and put ethics at least on par with profits. We all know that business class passengers pay a premium price to get all the luxuries of that class that the airline offers. However, many such studies were funded or carried out by the NFL, owners of NFL franchises, universities that earn millions of dollars from football, and other interested parties. A study of 3,904 Wisconsin men found no significant harmful association between playing football in high school and cognitive impairment or depression later in life. As with Bentham’s formulation, utilitarianism in business ethics is primarily concerned with outcomes rather than processes.  William Stewart et al., Primum Non Nocere: A Call for Balance When Reporting on CTE, Lancet Neurology, 18:231-232 (2019). "Utility" is defined in various ways, …  Jeanne Marie Laskas, Concussion (2015).  Julie Mack, What Parents Need to Know about Football, Concussions and Head Injuries, mlive.com, Nov. 24, 2019, at https://www.mlive.com/news/2019/11/what-parents-need-to-know-about-football-and-head-injuries.html (quoting neuroscientist Julie Stamm). This hostile takeover of the profitable Kachin amber mines ensures that amber purchases from researchers and private collectors will help fund the government side of the Myanmar ethnic civil war. See more. In economics, utility is the pleasure or satisfaction that people derive fromconsuming a product or service. Why or why not? Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is “brain degeneration likely caused by repeated head traumas.” Repetitive head impacts (RHIs) can cumulatively lead to CTE and early death, even though no single RHI results in a concussion. We have an incomplete understanding of the extent or distribution of pathology required to produce neurological dysfunction or to distinguish diseased from healthy tissue, with the neuropathological changes reported in apparently asymptomatic individuals.”, Neuropsychologist Munro Cullum argues: “I worry the pendulum has swung too far. Utilitarianism can be used in any business decision that seeks to maximize positive effects (especially morally, but also financially) and minimize negative ones. But it received both its name and its clearest statement in the writings of English philosophers Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) and John Stuart Mill (1806-1873). In the early 1900s, Ideal utilitarianism was first used to demonstrate the belief that there’s more to good than is denoted by pleasure. But utilitarianism has been attacked on many fronts, and by renowned philosophers. 8 short videos present the 7 principles of values-driven leadership from Giving Voice to Values by Mary Gentile.  Stephen S. Hanson, ‘He Didn’t Want to Let His Team Down’: The Challenge of Dual Loyalty for Team Physicians, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 45(3): 215-227 (2018). 1.  In addition, evidence indicates (and is consistent with the self-serving bias) that industry funding of research often influences results. Although different varieties of utilitarianism admit different characterizations, the basic idea behind all of them is to in some sense maximize utility, which is often defined in terms of well-being or related concepts.  Julie Mack, What Parents Need to Know about Football, Concusions and Head Injuries, mlive.com, Nov. 24, 2019, at https://www.mlive.com/news/2019/11/what-parents-need-to-know-about-football-and-head-injuries.html (quoting neurologist David Kaufman). The co-chair of the NFL’s Health and Safety Advisory Committee has said that the committee thinks helmets are part of the culture and tradition and will not be outlawed in the foreseeable future. However, because we cannot predict the future, it’s difficult to know with certainty whether the consequences of our actions will be good or bad. In the eyes of a HR manager, by taking action the majority of the stakeholders would benefit from a moral organisation adhering to their code of conduct, conducting fairness in all of their business … For example, the government has made it difficult for Christian and Islamic groups to gain permission to repair or build new places of worship. Do you think that the NFL would make more safety-related changes if white players dominated rosters? A collection of one-of-a-kind videos that highlight the ethical aspects of various subjects. John Stuart Mill was a nineteenth-century British philosopher and classical liberal economist who spent his working years with the East India Company. A 2019 study of the brains of 223 football players with CTE and 43 players without CTE found that for each additional 2.6 years of play, the risk of developing CTE doubled. Explain.  Jesse Mez et al., Clinicopathological Evaluation of Chronic Traumatic Encepahalopathy in Players of American Football, JAMA, 318(4): 360-370 (2017). What is the importance of utilitarianism in business? On an individual level, if you make morally correct decisions at work, then everyone's happiness will increase. An Analysis of Youth Football Head Impact Data, Neurosurgery (Jan. 2020), available at https://doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyz563. A Defense of a utilitarian approach to business ethics, written for Business Ethics: A Philosophical Approach Edited by Werhane and Donaldson. While some researchers and universities feel as though they should refrain from making such amber purchases, their failure to participate enables many private collectors to remove collections from the public or to charge researchers an exorbitant fee for access. Which ones? Utilitarianism is a tradition of ethical philosophy that is associated with Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill, two late 18th- and 19th-century British philosophers, economists, and political thinkers. Is Getting Soft. Chen also points to the uncertainties of the science, noting: “For now, these complexities make certain questions about the disease unanswerable. As with Bentham’s formulation, utilitarianism in business ethics is primarily concerned with outcomes rather than processes. Ethics, Population Health Policy, and Sports-Related TBI, in Sociolcultural Examinations of Sports Concussions (Matt Ventresca & Mary McDonald eds, 2020). Therefore, added benefits of rule utilitarianism values justice and includes beneficence at the same time. A 2012 study of 3,439 NFL players with five years or more in the NFL found that their neurogenerative mortality was three times that of the general U.S. population, and four times higher for two subcategories: Alzheimer’s disease, and Lou Gehrig’s Disease (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or ALS). This practice produces the highest good for the greatest number of people. Do you think these critiques are counterbalanced by the fact that the riches that are often lavished upon NFL players go disproportionately to African-Americans as well? And for the same reason, a helmet alone will not prevent CTE.” Furthermore, while the NFL has banned helmet-to-helmet hits, these are neither the only nor the most common cause of concussions. Utilitarianism is an effort to provide an answer to the practical question “What ought a person to do?” The answer is that a person ought to act so as to produce the best consequences … In the airline industry, for example, many planes offer first-, business-, and economy-class seats. Suicide rates among NCAA football players are the highest among all sports, but they are substantially lower than the general population age 18-22 or college students in that age range. We Know Little About the Long-term Effects of Concussions, Statnews, Sept.27, 2019. ", John Stuart Mill had many years to absorb and reflect on Jeremy Bentham's thoughts on utilitarianism by the time he published his own work, Utilitarianism, in 1863.  Kathleen Bachynski, Youth Football is a Moral Abdication, The Atlantic, Feb. 1, 2020. 51 animated videos - 1 to 2 minutes each - define key ethics terms and concepts. They’re all 18, 19, 20, 21 and 22-year-olds. The reality is that we still don’t know who is most likely to suffer a concussion, who will take longer to recover, how anatomic or genetic differences influence concussions, and who may be at risk of prolonged symptoms or developing cognitive problems later in life.”, Furthermore, many of the studies cited by those who would like to abolish tackle football have involved relatively small sample sizes. Utilitarianism is an ethical framework for effective moral action. … High school athletes are reluctant to report concussions. Explain.  Jesse Mez et al., Duration of American Football Play and Chronic Traumatic Encephalopothy, Annals of Neurology, 2019; DOI: 10.1002/ana.25611. Many recent studies point to how dangerous football is to players’ long-term brain health. Most companies have a formal or informal code of ethics, which is shaped by their corporate culture, values, and regional laws. Utilitarianism and utility. Why or why not? Again, these studies are broken down by league level: Studies such as these provide ammunition for those who defend organized football as an institution. Do these choices remind you of the COVID-19 pandemic when governments, in deciding whether to shut down society and later when to reopen it, had to weigh lives vs. livelihoods? There are many different ways to approach ethics. In this Wireless Philosophy video, Julia Markovits (Cornell University) gives an introduction to the moral theory of utilitarianism. 5. If the outcome leads to the greatest good (or the least harm) for the greatest number of people, then it is assumed the end justifies the means. 57 Daniel Goldberg, What Does the Precautionary Principle Demand of Us? Therefore, added benefits of rule utilitarianism values justice and includes beneficence at the same time. One example of utilitarianism in business is the practice of having tiered pricing for a product or service to different types of customers.  Daniel Goldberg, What Does the Precautionary Principle Demand of Us? Many people who are in favor of abolishing football or significantly reforming the way it is played are pro-choice when it comes to abortion, minor drug use, and assisted suicide. Utilitarianism may be employed in any business decision-making process that seeks to maximize positive effects (especially morally, but perhaps also financially and so forth) and minimize negative outcomes. And How Will It Change in 2019?, ESPN, Aug. 19, 2019, at https://www.espn.com/nfl/story/_/id/27372974/did-helmet-rule-actually-work-2018-how-change-2019. It has been suggested at both the NFL and collegiate level that team physicians are faced with conflicting loyalties.  Thomas L. Schwenk, Depression and Pain in Retired Professional Football Players, Medicine & Science in Sports & Leisure, 39(4): 599-605 92007)(but finding that when coupled with difficult with pain, problems with sleep and social relations often followed). In economics, utility is the pleasure or satisfaction that people derive from consuming a product or service. The pivotal objective of every business is to maximize the income by the minimization of the costs; that is, the business decisions aim to reach this goal. The Three Generally Accepted Axioms of Utilitarianism State That, Utilitarianism's Relevance in a Political Economy, Everything You Need to Know About Macroeconomics. Utilitarianism is pervasive in contemporary business practice, management theory, and decision-making through cost-benefit analysis. Utilitarianism is one of the most important and influential moral theories of modern times. If subconcussive blows are the cause of C.T.E., how much impact is too much? Utilitarianism in the workplace focuses on ethics, democracy, rights and responsibilities within the business environment. No, it’s not crazy because we need to continue and budget and run money through the state of Oklahoma.”.  Bryan R. Cobb et al., Head Impact Exposure in Youth Football: Elementary School Ages 9-12 Years and the Effect of Practice Structure, Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 41: 2463-2473 (2013). like hedonism in that it has the importance of happiness for all humans as its core belief Examples of utilitarianism in the following topics: Personal ethics: four ethical approaches.  Patrick Findler, Should Kids Play (American) Football?, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 42(3): 443-462 (2015). It is … Decisions are often made based on the “bottom line” … Utilitarianism definition, the ethical doctrine that virtue is based on utility, and that conduct should be directed toward promoting the greatest happiness of the greatest number of persons. Regarding sports concussions, President Obama stated: “We have to change a culture that says ‘you suck it up and play through a brain injury….  Ingfei Chen, Exactly How Dangerous Is Football?, The New Yorker, Feb. 1, 2020. “Football is both notorious and cherished for its unapologetic, brute-force violence.” Players suffer bruises, lacerations, torn muscles, dislocated shoulders, torn knee ligaments, broken bones, internal organ damage, and, occasionally, even paralysis. New Yorker writer Ingfei Chen observed that Fisher-Price had been required to recall a collapsible crib that was associated with 32 infant deaths. A study of former high school and college football players found that RHI exposure predicted later-life apathy, depression, executive dysfunction, and cognitive impairment. Posts about examples of utilitarianism in today’s society examples of utilitarianism ethics real life examples of utilitarianism examples of utilitarianism in healthcare examples of utilitarianism in business exa written by T h e o • p h i l o g u e It is the basis for much of our discussion regarding the failures of Enron, Worldcom, and even the subprime mess and Wall Street Meltdown. Similarly, monopolistic competition teaches one business to flourish at the expense of others. Those who favour such voluntary programmes give greater weight to consent and privacy than to well‐being and life. Utilitarianism holds that the most ethical choice is the one that will produce the greatest good for the greatest number. The fourth element required to apply utilitarianism in business is aggregation, which is the notion that the wrongness or rightness of actions depends on their ability to average the benefits brought to all … Players Hit Back, New York Times, Sept. 26, 2017. Similar to the ethics of care in business professional practices, virtue business ethics is a broad business theory that focuses on the character of the moral behavior of individuals rather than the rightness of the intended actions. Examples of utilitarianism criticisms are outlined below: “Utilitarianism is not concerned with justice.” Russell, The Value of Dangerous Sport, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 32: 1-19 (2005).  Ingfei Chen, Exactly How Dangerous Is Football?, The New Yorker, Feb. 1, 2020.  David W. Lawrence et al., Descriptive Epidemiology of Musculoskeletal Injuries and Concussions in the National Football League, 2021-2014, Orthopedic Journal of Sports Medicine, 2015:3(5):2325967115583653.  Julie M. Stamm et al., Age of First Exposure to Football and Later-life Cognitive Impairment in Former NFL Players, Neurology, 84(11): 1114-1120 (2015).  Steve Almond, Is It Immoral to Watch the Super Bowl?, New York Times, Jan. 24, 2014; Pamela R. Sailors, Personal Foul: An Evaluation of the Moral Status of Football, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 42(2): 269-286 (2015). From a utilitarianism perspective, if the good coming from the action outweighs the bad effects, then it may be considered as a good one. How do we answer that question? Utilitarianism would favour a more coercive approach if this is more effective.  Bill Pennington, Trump Says N.F.L. Today, having a formalized code of business ethics is more important than ever.  Adnan A. Hirad, A Common Neural Signature of Brain Injury in Concussion and Subconcussion, Science Advances 5(8), Aug. 2019.  Rachel Grashow et al., Association of Concussion Symptoms with Testosterone levels and Erectile Dysfunction in Former Professional US-Style Football Players, JAMA Neurology, 2019: DOI: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2019.2664. In some cases, amber contains inclusions, such as insects, whole or parts of animals, and plants that are trapped and preserved.  Ingfei Chen, Exactly How Dangerous Is Football?, The New Yorker, Feb. 1, 2020. To get … Act utilitarianism often demonstrates the concept that “the end justifies the means”—or it's worth it. 3.  Dave Bry, American Football is Too Dangerous, and It Should Be Abolished, The Guardian (UK), Jan. 4, 2016. "The greatest good for the greatest number" is the motto of the Utilitarian approach. (There are other kinds of consequentialism, but they’re uncommon, so for now we can say that utilitarianism …  Matt Ventresca, The Curious Case of CTE: Mediating Materialities of Traumatic Brain Injury, Communication & Sport, 7(2): 135-156 (2019).  Dave Bry, American Football is Too Dangerous, and It Should Be Abolished, The Guardian (UK), Jan. 4, 2016. Explain. , The NFL has taken other concrete steps to respond to the controversy. Over two regular seasons (2012-2014), NFL players sustained 4,384 injuries, including 301 concussions. The government then forced more than 5000 inhabitants from their homes and villages, as well as from the amber mines. If there was no more pleasure in the world but more love and beauty, the world would still be a better place. This leaves a great deal of room for criticism, as people weigh in on individual theories, and how they relate to one another.  Ken Belson, Judge Approves Deal in N.F.L. 30 videos - one minute each - relate recent scandals in the news and give ethical insights. Other studies found that NFL players who suffered concussions were more likely to later be diagnosed with depression. A study of former NFL players found that those who began playing football before age 12 tended to show greater later-life cognitive impairments as compared to those who began after age 12. The offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which Investopedia receives compensation.  Steve Almond, Is It Immoral to Watch the Super Bowl?, New York Times, Jan. 24, 2014. If so, how would you go about guarding against it have a deleterious impact? Utilitarianism also has trouble accounting for values such as justice and individual rights. Why, then, do you think they oppose letting adults choose freely to play football?  Dave Bry, American Football is Too Dangerous, and It Should Be Abolished, The Guardian (UK), Jan. 4, 2016. The main idea of utilitarian ethics is: secure the greatest good for the greatest numb… Work in the 21st-century workplace is no longer merely a means to an end; it is meaningful and calls upon people’s ambitions, beliefs and passions. Utilitarianism gets its name … They have a duty to preserve the players’ health, but simultaneously feel pressure to get players back out on the field so the team can win.  Jacqueline Howard, These High School Sports Have the Highest Concussion Rates, CNN, Oct. 15, 2019, at https://www.cnn.com/2019/10/15/health/concussion-high-school-sports-study/index.html. 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